Bibliography Home

typed wordsThis Emergency Department Bibliography section contains lists and brief summaries of resources pertaining to the care of patients in the Emergency Department.  Most of the listed resources pertain to patients with behavioral health issues, and those that are general are preceded by an asterisk.  This page contains general resources for improving care in the ED.  Below are a list of pages with related resources:

Resources Regarding Care Improvement in Emergency Departments

* Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (2006). Emergency Department Performance Measures and Benchmarking Summit Consensus Statement.
Available at:

  • This document attempts to define basic elements of ED operations, a necessary step in implementing quality improvement principles and evaluating service initiatives.

Buttlaire S. Improving Care for Behavioral Health Clients Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments: A Webinar on a Pioneering Learning Collaborative. IBHI (Institute for Behavioral Healthcare Improvement). January 9, 2011
Available at:

  • This webinar addresses problems, strategies, change ideas, barriers/concerns/outcome measures, emphasizing clinical outcomes, operations, and patient satisfaction and staff satisfaction.

Buttlaire S, Brown P. Emerging Strategies to Improve Care for Behavioral Health Clients in the Emergency Department. Institute for Behavioral Healthcare Improvement; October 2012.
Available at:

Emergency Department Diversion (EDD) Project: An Integrated Response to Mental Health Patients Presenting in Hospital Emergency Department [PowerPoint Presentation].
North York General Hospital, Saint Elizabeth Health Care, Access One Partners (Cota Health, Bayview Community Services & Toronto North Support Services)

Illinois Hospital Association Behavioral Health Steering Committee (Updated October 2007). Best practices for the treatment of patients with mental and substance use illnesses in the emergency department. Springfield, IL.
Available at

  • This report discusses treatment of behavioral health patients in a variety of emergency department settings, from the large urban academic medical center to the small rural hospital. It also considers EDs with dedicated psychiatric space and staff as well as those that do not have these resources.

Institute of Medicine. Quality Chasm Series: Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance Use Conditions. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.; 2006.
Available at:

  • “A previous Institute of Medicine report, Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century (IOM, 2001), put forth a strategy for improving health care overall. However, health care for mental and substance-use conditions has a number of distinctive characteristics, such as the greater use of coercion into treatment, separate care delivery systems, a less developed quality measurement infrastructure, and a differently structured marketplace…. This new report examines those differences, finds that the Quality Chasm framework can be applied to health care for mental and substance-use conditions, and describes a multifaceted and comprehensive strategy for doing so. “

Westergard A. Psychiatric Care, Our Nation in Crisis. Emergency Nurses Association, March 2010
Available at:

  • The author highlights a number of actions that emergency nurses can take to better serve psychiatric patients in the ED.

Zun L. Improving Emergency Department Care for Behavioral Health Clients - Some structural and procedural Best Practices: A Webinar on Practice-based Best Practices. IBHI; October 12, 2011.
Available at:

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